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Account For The Nationalist Victory In The Spanish Civil War

franco

The Spanish Civil War lasted for three years from 1936 to 1939 and was ultimately won by the Nationalists. This victory was far from certain at various points of the conflict and this essay shall explore the many factors that actually contributed to the ultimate outcome and that which paved the way for almost 4 decades of the authoritarian Franco régime in Spain. The single most important factor, in my opinion, which led to the Nationalist victory in the Civil War, was the international support that was offered to Franco’s troops. The Republican side became an international pariah, with only Russia substantially offering support, yet on the Nationalist side a coalition of Axis dictators paved the way for Franco with both Hitler and Mussolini readily providing matériel. ‘International participation and the ideological zeal which surrounded both sides conferred upon the war the character of a crusade.’ (Romero Salvadó 1999:94) Indeed, the whole military uprising, in the first place, couldn’t have succeeded without the Germans successfully transporting Franco’s Army of Africa across the Straits of Gibraltar. ‘Reinforcements were needed urgently on the mainland and, since the rising in the fleet had failed, aeroplanes were essential to carry the Army of Africa to Spain.’ (Beevor 2006:71) They were stranded and the whole pronuncamiento might have failed completely had Hitler’s Luftwaffe never intervened. Franco’s army provided the most crucial backbone for the Nationalist army. ‘In any case, the decisive factor in the power stakes was Franco’s control of the 47,000 well-armed and well-trained men of the Moroccan Army. The battle-hardened colonial army, consisting of the professionals of the Spanish Foreign Legion and Arab mercenaries of the Regulares Indígenas (native regulars), was to be the cornerstone of Nationalist success. (Preston 1996:83) The Arab mercenaries went on to strike terror into all they came across, in particular the civilian populations who they brutalised. Indeed the use of terror was about three times more prevalent in the Nationalist Zone. Despite the presence of the backbone of the Catholic Church in Nationalist Spain, discipline was strict. This was a military area and reprisals for the enemy were widespread and brutal. ‘Although figures are very unreliable and open to controversy about 55 000 Rightists were murdered, mostly in the first months of war, for over 200 000 leftists.’ (Romero Salvadó 1999:113) The theatre of Spain was a testing ground for new military tactics and equipment. We saw firsts…

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No Es Necesario Viajar Para Aprender Un Idioma Extranjero

globe

Has leído en Internet que el antiguo ministro de Educación español ha expresado públicamente que no es necesario viajar para aprender un idioma extranjero. Como estudiante de idiomas, ¿qué opinión tienes al respecto?   Soy estudiante de traducción en la universidad de Cardiff y durante mis tres años de estudios no tengo que ir al país extranjero para aprender los idiomas. Por eso yo creo que es muy posible que el antiguo ministro de Educación español sea correcto. Por supuesto, si viaja al extranjero se puede ganar unas ventajas para sus estudios. Se puede ganar de sumergirse en la cultura nativa, totalmente rodearse en el idioma extranjero, por el que todo el mundo que se encuentra es hablar. Además de la oportunidad de tener una plena inmersión en una cultura totalmente diferente se puede creer amistades internacionales que pueden ofrecer más durante la vida.   Por otro lado es posible quedarse en su propio país y aprender un idioma extranjero. Por ejemplo, si aprende un idioma muerto como el griego antiguo o el latín, es imposible visitar un país donde se hablan estas lenguas. Un lenguaje moderno no es necesariamente diferente de aprender que un lenguaje muerto. En la paz de un aula es posible centrarse y aprender bien. Con un hablante nativo de ultramar como su profesor durante dos horas a la semana es como si estuviera visitando un país extranjero por un breve período concentrado. Hay servicios de internet como italki.com donde se puede aprender en línea y conocer a los instructores a través de skype. Me gusta mucho este servicio y aunque nunca he visitado España me siento como puedo hablar con un buen acento e imagino que he viajado realmente allí. Es más cómodo estudiar en su propio entorno donde está relajado y tiene una tasa de estudio más alta.   En general, aunque ciertamente puedo ver algunas de las ventajas de estudiar en el extranjero, creo que el Ministro es totalmente correcto y que es posible estudiar idiomas extranjeros sin viajar.

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Le Filtre Français

facebook france filter

« Le succès du filtre Facebook rappelle que l’indignation est parfois sélective. » Selon vous : «  Est-ce une raison pour brocarder ceux qui l’adoptent pour exprimer publiquement leur solidarité ? » Après les attaques terroristes à Paris en novembre 2015, un filtre qui vous permet de changer votre photo de profil à celle du tricolore français est apparu sur Facebook. Ce filtre vous permet supposément de montrer votre solidarité avec les victimes des attaques. Le filtre s’est révélé très populaire et s’est répandu de manière virale à travers le monde occidental. Cependant, le filtre a également suscité des critiques de certains milieux et dans cet essai, nous visons à discuter une partie de la controverse entourant le filtre. Est-ce que l’indignation est parfois sélective ? Est-ce qu’il faut brocarder ceux qui adoptent le filtre ? D’une part, la popularité du filtre est un excellent moyen de montrer la solidarité contre les terroristes horribles. Que le filtre s’est répandu jusqu’ici et large montre comment offensé le monde occidental a été par l’outrage terroriste. D’autre part, l’utilisation du filtre peut être critiquée. Pourquoi un filtre pour les victimes de l’attaque au Liban la veille des attaques de Paris n’a-t-il pas été utilisé? L’utilisation du filtre démontre l’eurocentrisme et montre peut-être la limite de notre empathie. Non seulement il y a des attaques terroristes à Paris, mais aussi à Bagdad, en Syrie, au Pakistan, mais pourquoi ne changeons-nous pas nos drapeaux pour ceux de ces pays? On peut dire que peut-être nous valorisons les victimes occidentales, les femmes dans leurs chapeaux de magasins laineux, plus que ces femmes voilées du Moyen-Orient. Est-ce un signe de la suprématie blanche que nous choisissons de draper nos photos de profil avec le tricolore? C’est un signe d’indignation sélective. Mais on peut nous pardonner de faire preuve de solidarité avec nos voisins? Les attaques terroristes sont pratiquement sur notre porte. Paris est une ville où nous passons des escapades romantiques de week-end, que nous étudions en détail dans nos cours de français GCSE, la capitale de notre voisin le plus proche. Une attaque contre Paris est sûrement une attaque contre nous? Je pense qu’il est naturel que nous devions faire preuve d’empathie pour les victimes des attaques de Paris. Cependant, y aurait-il une meilleure façon de manifester de l’indignation contre les terroristes? D’autres groupes ont essayé d’imiter le succès du filtre français. Par exemple, les militants du mariage homosexuel aux États-Unis ont introduit un…

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Fidelity In Translation

Torture-Of-Etienne-Dolet

‘Fidelity has dominated translation history, but theorists interpret it in starkly different ways.’ Discuss, making reference to at least two theorists.   Faithfulness or fidelity has been a measure by which a translator’s work can be judged. However, fidelity has not remained constant throughout time and across space and at different stages of history the interpretation of fidelity has varied quite broadly. This essay aims to discuss this meandering in the term fidelity and will examine various theorists who can provide examples of fidelity in action.   Fidelity defines exactly how precisely a translated document conforms with its source. It can allude to how a document corresponds with its source in a variety of ways, from being ‘faithful to the message’, to being ‘faithful to the author’. Also one must factor in the register, the languages and grammar, the cultures and the form. Fidelity theory and its discussion has dominated the history of translation studies. In the early days, adherence to the source text in a verbatim way was seen as the best fidelity. However, as time has progressed, society has learned to define fidelity quite differently.   Origins of translators in history can be difficult to define. One of the key protagonists we have is Cicero, the early Roman orator. The Romans perceived themselves as a continuation of their Greek models. Translation was primarily a form of literary apprenticeship and literature was read in parallel Greek and Latin texts. Cicero outlines his approached to translation in his work De optimo genere oratorum (46 BCE), Cicero writes: ‘And I did not translate them as an interpreter, but as an orator, keeping the same ideas and forms, or as one might say, the ‘figures’ of thought, but in language which conforms to our usage. And in so doing, I did not hold it necessary to render word for word, but I preserved the general style and force of the language.’(Cicero 46 BCE). Thus Cicero was rebelling against the traditions of ‘word-for-word’ translation.   Another innovative translator from Cicero’s time was the poet, Horace (65 BC-8 BC), who again favored a ‘sense-for-sense’ view to translation. Horace was interested in promoting creative writing, and saw in his Ars Poetica how the free translation of Greek texts aided poetic composition:   ‘It is difficult to treat a common matter in a way that is particular to you; and you would do better to turn…

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La « New Jungle » de Calais

jungle de calais

La « new jungle » de Calais est-elle un problème français ou britannique ? Il existe beaucoup de controverse autour de la question de la « new jungle » de Calais. La « jungle de Calais », aussi appelée « camp de Lande », est une expression désignant les camps de migrants et de réfugiés installés à partir du début des années 2000 à Calais, Coquelles et Sangatte, aux abords de l’entrée française du tunnel sous la Manche et de la zone portuaire de Calais. Il y avait plus de 5000 personnes dans la « new jungle », la plupart sont des migrants qui tentent de pénétrer sur le territoire du Royaume-Uni en passagers clandestins. Même si la « jungle » est géographiquement française, comme une question de frontière, les problèmes liés aux migrants à Calais est en tandem un problème britannique. Quant à quel pays est le plus responsable de la situation dans son ensemble, qui est un débat que cet essai a pour but de répondre. La migration est un problème qui touche vraiment tout le monde et est une pomme de discorde à la fois sur la droite et la gauche du spectre politique. Les migrants de Calais sont détenus en France même si elles ont toutes une destination préférée du Royaume-Uni. Le gouvernement français sont obligés de nettoyer ce qui est essentiellement un gâchis anglais et la coopération entre les gouvernements des deux pays est essentielle si l’ensemble de la situation de la jungle est de ne pas devenir hors de contrôle. En France, alors que la « new jungle » est un problème pour les autorités officielles, au Royaume-Uni, il est laissé à des célébrités et des journalistes de journaux pour faire face à la situation. Célébrité de football, Gary Lineker, a récemment tweeté avec sympathie sur les migrants à Calais, ce qui porte l’ensemble de la question à un public de masse au Royaume-Uni. Ses vues ont certainement irrité beaucoup à l’extrême droite, y compris les politiciens. Chanteuse Lily Allen avait visité la « new jungle » et a écrit un article controversé pour le Vice qui a irrité le tabloïd presse britannique. Ces célébrités espéraient qu’en mettant en évidence la question qu’ils pourraient forcer leur gouvernement à agir et pour abriter quelques-uns des nombreux, pauvres, enfants réfugiés Les habitants de Calais croient que « Toutes ces histoires de migrants, ce n’est pas bon pour l’image de Calais. Ça fait fuir les touristes »….

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History Of Translation

etienne dolet

[INTRODUCTION TO TRANSLATION THEORY – Coursework Essay] Various scholars have highlighted the importance of translation history. To what extent would you agree and why? Discuss and exemplify, making reference to at least two theorists.   Translation history mimics history itself. Any post-Babel relationship between tribes, nations, continents, peoples, involves translation and translators as different cultures possess different tongues. Relationships across time involve translators and interpreters to intermediate and add to the charms of civilization. ‘It is not too difficult to see how translators throughout their history have acted as both guardians and traders. They have acted both as the zealous elaborators and protectors of national languages and literatures and as the indispensable intermediaries in the opening up of the world to the circulation of commodities, people and ideas.’ Cronin (2003:70) From war to famine, dispersion of knowledge, empire building, conquest, religious missionaries, all aspects of what we know as history involves translation. In this essay I aim to isolate a few key critical moments in the history of translation and to identify key people who have paved the way for translators in the modern world. French postage stamp depicting the translation martyr, Étienne Dolet   One of the most interesting characters in the history of translation is Étienne Dolet. A French translator, Dolet aligned himself against the modus operandi. His dissidence, obviously backed with intellectual strength and passionate commitment to his work, made him persona non grata with the leading educational establishment in France. The Sorbonne would be the natural enemy of Dolet and as powerful and intimidating as it was, the battle could only ever end in defeat for the individual. Dolet, as an intellectual, formed part of the Ciceronian group of translation scholars. They believed that Latin should be written in the ancient style of Roman orators and writers such as Cicero; a classical Latin. They disagreed with the church-influenced modern Latin, en vogue with scholars such as Erasmus and the predominant style of European writing and thinking. Dolet was a purist and felt that the original Latin thinkers and creators of the language and its culture were not misdirected by the linguistic needs of the later movement that was Christianity. Ultimately, this passion for classicism led Dolet to the stake. Religion was taken seriously in the Middle Ages and blasphemy was a heinous offense. In his efforts to translate Plato, Dolet, paid no heed to the Christian…

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Guerrilla Heroico

Che Guevara

[Introduction To Hispanic Studies – Coursework Essay] Discuss how textual and visual representations of the Rebel Army during and after the Cuban Revolution contributed to the myth of the heroic guerrilla in Latin America.    The original iconic 1968 stylized ‘Guerrilla Heroico’ Che Guevara image created by Jim Fitzpatrick, based on Alberto Korda’s Original Photograph    The Cuban Revolution was an earth-shattering event with huge consequences internationally, not just in Latin America, but further afield. I felt the impact myself whilst travelling across Scandinavia in 2005. I’d run out of clean underwear and, while scanning the aisles of a Göteborg department store, I came face to face with a nice, bright pair of red socks, graced with the iconic Guerilla Heroica motive. Half a century on from the Revolution and one of Fidel Castro’s chief Comandantes is creating fashion trends on the opposite side of the planet. What was the impact of the Cuban Revolution in the immediate temporal aftermath and across the local region? Revolutions ripple outwards and surely the focus and legacy of the fulfilled 26 Julio movement will have affected Latin America? We must first address the key facts of the revolution itself. Subsequently we can analyse the legacy of the rebel army propaganda and the images and texts that have been gifted to posterity. A critical view of the subsequent insurgency movements across Latin America will allow us to judge the true impact of the ‘Guerrilla Heroica’ myth. On 2nd December 1956, a ragtag bunch of 82 Cuban exiles, the vanguard of the 26 Julio movement, reached shore in their homeland, aboard the yacht Granma, having trained up in Mexico under the auspices of their leader, Fidel Castro. An initial assault by right-wing dictator Fulgencio Batista’s government forces almost wiped out the brigade. Batista claimed to have killed Castro and fewer than 20 of the Granma’s crew made it into the depths of the Sierra Maestra, to embed and regroup so that the path to victory could unfold. The arrival of the Granma provoked other civil unrest across the island and there were various other revolutionary movements who rose up against state oppression. With the aim of raising support among the island’s population and to foster the movement’s international image, Castro and his surviving comrades began a serious propaganda mission to complement their initially defensive military guerrilla campaign. New York Times journalist, Herbert Matthews, was given…

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