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Account For The Nationalist Victory In The Spanish Civil War

franco

The Spanish Civil War lasted for three years from 1936 to 1939 and was ultimately won by the Nationalists. This victory was far from certain at various points of the conflict and this essay shall explore the many factors that actually contributed to the ultimate outcome and that which paved the way for almost 4 decades of the authoritarian Franco régime in Spain. The single most important factor, in my opinion, which led to the Nationalist victory in the Civil War, was the international support that was offered to Franco’s troops. The Republican side became an international pariah, with only Russia substantially offering support, yet on the Nationalist side a coalition of Axis dictators paved the way for Franco with both Hitler and Mussolini readily providing matériel. ‘International participation and the ideological zeal which surrounded both sides conferred upon the war the character of a crusade.’ (Romero Salvadó 1999:94) Indeed, the whole military uprising, in the first place, couldn’t have succeeded without the Germans successfully transporting Franco’s Army of Africa across the Straits of Gibraltar. ‘Reinforcements were needed urgently on the mainland and, since the rising in the fleet had failed, aeroplanes were essential to carry the Army of Africa to Spain.’ (Beevor 2006:71) They were stranded and the whole pronuncamiento might have failed completely had Hitler’s Luftwaffe never intervened. Franco’s army provided the most crucial backbone for the Nationalist army. ‘In any case, the decisive factor in the power stakes was Franco’s control of the 47,000 well-armed and well-trained men of the Moroccan Army. The battle-hardened colonial army, consisting of the professionals of the Spanish Foreign Legion and Arab mercenaries of the Regulares Indígenas (native regulars), was to be the cornerstone of Nationalist success. (Preston 1996:83) The Arab mercenaries went on to strike terror into all they came across, in particular the civilian populations who they brutalised. Indeed the use of terror was about three times more prevalent in the Nationalist Zone. Despite the presence of the backbone of the Catholic Church in Nationalist Spain, discipline was strict. This was a military area and reprisals for the enemy were widespread and brutal. ‘Although figures are very unreliable and open to controversy about 55 000 Rightists were murdered, mostly in the first months of war, for over 200 000 leftists.’ (Romero Salvadó 1999:113) The theatre of Spain was a testing ground for new military tactics and equipment. We saw firsts…

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No Es Necesario Viajar Para Aprender Un Idioma Extranjero

globe

Has leído en Internet que el antiguo ministro de Educación español ha expresado públicamente que no es necesario viajar para aprender un idioma extranjero. Como estudiante de idiomas, ¿qué opinión tienes al respecto?   Soy estudiante de traducción en la universidad de Cardiff y durante mis tres años de estudios no tengo que ir al país extranjero para aprender los idiomas. Por eso yo creo que es muy posible que el antiguo ministro de Educación español sea correcto. Por supuesto, si viaja al extranjero se puede ganar unas ventajas para sus estudios. Se puede ganar de sumergirse en la cultura nativa, totalmente rodearse en el idioma extranjero, por el que todo el mundo que se encuentra es hablar. Además de la oportunidad de tener una plena inmersión en una cultura totalmente diferente se puede creer amistades internacionales que pueden ofrecer más durante la vida.   Por otro lado es posible quedarse en su propio país y aprender un idioma extranjero. Por ejemplo, si aprende un idioma muerto como el griego antiguo o el latín, es imposible visitar un país donde se hablan estas lenguas. Un lenguaje moderno no es necesariamente diferente de aprender que un lenguaje muerto. En la paz de un aula es posible centrarse y aprender bien. Con un hablante nativo de ultramar como su profesor durante dos horas a la semana es como si estuviera visitando un país extranjero por un breve período concentrado. Hay servicios de internet como italki.com donde se puede aprender en línea y conocer a los instructores a través de skype. Me gusta mucho este servicio y aunque nunca he visitado España me siento como puedo hablar con un buen acento e imagino que he viajado realmente allí. Es más cómodo estudiar en su propio entorno donde está relajado y tiene una tasa de estudio más alta.   En general, aunque ciertamente puedo ver algunas de las ventajas de estudiar en el extranjero, creo que el Ministro es totalmente correcto y que es posible estudiar idiomas extranjeros sin viajar.

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Guerrilla Heroico

Che Guevara

[Introduction To Hispanic Studies – Coursework Essay] Discuss how textual and visual representations of the Rebel Army during and after the Cuban Revolution contributed to the myth of the heroic guerrilla in Latin America.    The original iconic 1968 stylized ‘Guerrilla Heroico’ Che Guevara image created by Jim Fitzpatrick, based on Alberto Korda’s Original Photograph    The Cuban Revolution was an earth-shattering event with huge consequences internationally, not just in Latin America, but further afield. I felt the impact myself whilst travelling across Scandinavia in 2005. I’d run out of clean underwear and, while scanning the aisles of a Göteborg department store, I came face to face with a nice, bright pair of red socks, graced with the iconic Guerilla Heroica motive. Half a century on from the Revolution and one of Fidel Castro’s chief Comandantes is creating fashion trends on the opposite side of the planet. What was the impact of the Cuban Revolution in the immediate temporal aftermath and across the local region? Revolutions ripple outwards and surely the focus and legacy of the fulfilled 26 Julio movement will have affected Latin America? We must first address the key facts of the revolution itself. Subsequently we can analyse the legacy of the rebel army propaganda and the images and texts that have been gifted to posterity. A critical view of the subsequent insurgency movements across Latin America will allow us to judge the true impact of the ‘Guerrilla Heroica’ myth. On 2nd December 1956, a ragtag bunch of 82 Cuban exiles, the vanguard of the 26 Julio movement, reached shore in their homeland, aboard the yacht Granma, having trained up in Mexico under the auspices of their leader, Fidel Castro. An initial assault by right-wing dictator Fulgencio Batista’s government forces almost wiped out the brigade. Batista claimed to have killed Castro and fewer than 20 of the Granma’s crew made it into the depths of the Sierra Maestra, to embed and regroup so that the path to victory could unfold. The arrival of the Granma provoked other civil unrest across the island and there were various other revolutionary movements who rose up against state oppression. With the aim of raising support among the island’s population and to foster the movement’s international image, Castro and his surviving comrades began a serious propaganda mission to complement their initially defensive military guerrilla campaign. New York Times journalist, Herbert Matthews, was given…

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