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Polysystems And Postcolonialism

Itamar-Even-Zohar

Polysystems and Postcolonialism by William Wesley Gerrard 02.06.16 ML8101 – INTRODUCTION TO TRANSLATION THEORY – Alternative Assessment – ID: C1473322 CANDIDATE NAME: William Wesley Gerrard STUDENT NUMBER: c1473322 MODULE CODE: ML8101 MODULE TITLE: Introduction to Translation Theory SEMINAR TUTOR: Dr Carlos Sanz-Mingo ESSAY TITLE / COURSEWORK ASSIGNMENT: Polysystems and Postcolonialism – Alternative Assessment WORD COUNT: 1537   It has been argued that unequal power relationships between languages, countries, cultures and polysystems have important implications for translation. Discuss, making reference to at least one approach from lectures, and provide at least one example. Translation is at the heart of international relations, hence power differentials are always abundant as translators work. As Venuti identifies there tends to be a potential violence in the interactions: ‘The violent effects of translation are felt at home as well as abroad. On the one hand, translation wields enormous power in the construction of identities for foreign cultures, and hence it potentially figures in ethnic discrimination, geopolitical confrontations, colonialism, terrorism, war. On the other hand, translation enlists the foreign text in the maintenance or revision of literary canons in the receiving culture, inscribing poetry and fiction, for example, with the various poetic, narrative, and ideological discourses that compete for cultural dominance in the translating language.’ Venuti (2008:14) This essay will explore the relationships between the entities using polysystem theory and also by focussing on postcolonialsim and its effects. In bringing in examples, the differing power relationships between languages will be identified with a particular focus on the role of translators within society. Itamar Even-Zohar Polysystem theory was created by Israeli scholar, Itamar Even-Zohar, in the 1970s, based on the ideas of the Russian Formalists of the 1920s and the Czech structuralists of the 1930s and 1940s. ‘According to Even-Zohar’s model, the polysystem is conceived as a heterogeneous, hierarchized conglomerate (or system) of systems which interact to bring about an ongoing, dynamic process of evolution within the polysystem as a whole.’ Shuttleworth in Baker & Saldanha (2009:197) Translation holds a key role within polysystem theory and the works of translators are at the heart as well as the periphery of the polysystems Even-Zohar identifies: ‘Translation is no longer a phenomenon whose nature and borders are given once and for all, but an activity dependant on the relations within a certain cultural system.’ Even-Zohar (1990:51) Within a polysystem, varying forms of literature and media form separate subsystems, translations having…

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A Sandwich Short Of A Picnic? Week 1 Translation Theory Exercise

picnic

Translation Theory Week 1 01/10/14 Exercise – Wesley Gerrard   Translate the following text into the language of your choice. Would it make sense if you translated it word for word?   Mary pulled his leg and he believed it all. He was clearly a sandwich short of a picnic. He didn’t like it when he realized she was laughing at him but as they were thick as thieves he didn’t take it personally.   From initially looking at the text, it is full of colloquialisms which will not translate directly word-for-word.   Mary pulled his leg and he believed it all. He was clearly a sandwich short of a picnic. He didn’t like it when he realized she was laughing at him but as they were thick as thieves he didn’t take it personally.   I have highlighted in bold the three main colloquialisms which I can foresee producing errors. When I translate, I very often like to throw the text into Google translate to see how a rudimentary metaphrase of the text appears. One cannot think of it as cheating. Machine translation exists and is in the modern world of translation. It should therefore be used. At the very least some of the unknown vocabulary can be discovered and it will be possible to identity some of the issues that have already been noted regarding the colloquialisms.   Here is the English – Spanish Google translate of the text:   María sacó su pierna y creía todo. Él era claramente un corto sándwich de un picnic. No le gustaba que cuando se dio cuenta que se estaba riendo de él, pero como eran uña y carne no lo tome como algo personal.   Automatically I can see that Maria has an accent – which I might not have realized. I next notice that there could be problems with the ‘sandwich short of a picnic’. I want to really find a Spanish phrase for being ‘a bit crazy’. I can’t think off the top of my head what that could be at present and will need to research. ‘poco loco’ is maybe a bit too general and vague. I think that Google translate could have possibly done a sense-for-sense paraphrase for ‘thick as thieves’ – ‘uña y carne’ seems to be what is produced. It literally means ‘flesh and bone’. Google translate will look at a database of previous…

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